With proactive intervention like aggressive anti-vomiting and reflux medications, gastrointestinal (GI) complications are reduced.
Esophageal Damage (from vomiting and/or reflux).
Proactive protection of the gastrointestinal mucosa during HG should be part of standard care. Note: Women with severe esophageal damage may have ruptures even into the postpartum period.
- Esophagitis (inflammation of the esophagus)
- Tears in throat (Mallory-Weiss Tear)
- Rupture of esophagus (Boerhaave syndrome) - can be fatal
- Esophogeal damage long term
- Bright red blood in vomit (hematemesis),
- black, tarry stools (melena),
- bright red blood in stool (hematochezia),
- light-headedness followed by brief lapses in consciousness (syncope),
- throat pain.
Delayed gastric emptying (Gastroparesis)
- Gastric emptying in hyperemesis gravidarum and non-dyspeptic pregnancy
- Constipation related to limited mobility, medications, and low-fiber diet
- Gastric ulcers and bleeding
- Severe constipation/obstruction
- Gastroesophageal Reflux (GERD)
- Flora and pH imbalances (esp. if using HCL blockers)
When stomach acid secretion is impaired, the stage is set for an increased risk of infection from organisms such as Candida or yeast and Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers and stomach cancer. Further, low acid or hypochlorhydria will result in poor protein breakdown, and subsequent poor absorption of amino acids, the building blocks for many important chemical compounds and structures within the body.
- Gastric mucosal atrophy from lack of protein and oral intake